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Carbofuran
3% 5% 10%G   35%SC   75% 85% 90%TK
INTRODUCTION
 
Carbofuran is a broad spectrum carbamate pesticide that kills insects, mites and nematodes on contact or after ingestion. It is used against soil and foliar pests of field, fruit, vegetable and forest crops. Carbofuran is available in liquid and granular formulations.
 
ACUTE TOXICITY
 
Carbofuran is highly toxic by inhalation and ingestion and moderately toxic by dermal absorption. Risks from exposure to Carbofuran are especially high for persons with asthma, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, mechanical obstruction of the gastrointestinal or urogenital tracts, or those in vagotonic states.
Carbofuran may cause contact burns to the skin or eyes. Eye protection should be worn when handling Carbofuran. A respirator should be worn by applicators of Carbofuran. Fires, and the run off from fire control, may produce irritating or poisonous gases. Closed spaces (storage, etc.) should be aired before entering.
As with other carbamate compounds, Carbofuran's cholinesterase- inhibiting effect is short-term and reversible. Symptoms of Carbofuran poisoning include: nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, sweating, diarrhea, excessive salivation, weakness, imbalance, blurring of vision, breathing difficulty, increased blood pressure or 'hypertension,' and lack of control of urine or feces release, referred to as 'incontinence.' Death may result from respiratory system failure associated with Carbofuran exposure. Complete recovery from an acute poisoning by Carbofuran, with no long term health effects, is possible if exposure ceases and the victim has time to reform their normal level of cholinesterase and to recover from symptoms. (For more information on cholinesterase, please refer to the Toxicology Information Brief on Cholinesterase-Inhibition).
 
Carbamates generally are excreted rapidly and do not accumulate in mammalian tissue. If exposure does not continue, cholinesterase inhibition reverses rapidly. In non-fatal cases, the illness generally lasts less than 24 hours.
 
The amount of a chemical that is lethal to one-half (50%) of experimental animals fed the material is referred to as its acute oral lethal dose fifty, or LD50. The oral LD50 for rats is 5 mg/kg, for mice is 2 mg/kg, and for dogs is 19 mg/kg. The dermal LD50 for rabbits is 885 mg/kg.
 
The lethal concentration fifty, or LC50, is that concentration of a chemical in air or water that kills half of the experimental animals exposed to it for a set time period. The 4-hour LC50 for inhalation of Carbofuran in guinea pigs is 43 mg/m3. The LC50 for rats is 85 mg/L and 52 mg/L for dogs.
 
CHRONIC TOXICITY
 
Prolonged or repeated exposure to Carbofuran may cause the same symptoms as an acute exposure. The EPA has established a Lifetime Health Advisory (LHA) level of 40 ppb of Carbofuran in drinking water. This means that a person may drink water containing Carbofuran at or below this level daily over the course of their lifetime with no health effects. Consuming Carbofuran at high levels well above the LHA level over a long period of time has caused damage to the testes and uterus of test animals. It has also caused cholinesterase inhibition in both humans and test animals.
 


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